Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

v3.10.0.1
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation

Basis of Presentation : All of the Company’s assets are owned by, and all its operations are conducted through the Operating Partnership. Life Storage Holdings, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Parent Company (“Holdings”), is the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership; the Parent Company is a limited partner of the Operating Partnership, and, through its ownership of Holdings and its limited partnership interest, controls the operations of the Operating Partnership, holding a 99.5% ownership interest therein as of December 31, 2018. The remaining ownership interests in the Operating Partnership (the “Units”) are held by certain former owners of assets acquired by the Operating Partnership.

We consolidate all wholly owned subsidiaries. Partially owned subsidiaries and joint ventures are consolidated when we control the entity. Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Parent Company, the Operating Partnership, Life Storage Solutions, LLC (one of the Parent Company’s taxable REIT subsidiaries), Warehouse Anywhere LLC (an entity owned 60% by Life Storage Solutions, LLC), and all other wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated. Investments in joint ventures that we do not control but for which we have significant influence over are accounted for using the equity method.

Included in the Parent Company’s consolidated balance sheets are noncontrolling redeemable Operating Partnership Units and included in the Operating Partnership’s consolidated balance sheets are limited partners’ redeemable capital interest at redemption value. These interests are presented in the “mezzanine” section of the consolidated balance sheets because they do not meet the functional definition of a liability or equity under current accounting literature. These represent the outside ownership interests of the limited partners in the Operating Partnership. There were 248,966 and 217,481 noncontrolling redeemable Operating Partnership Units outstanding at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. These unitholders are entitled to receive distributions per unit equivalent to the dividends declared per share on the Parent Company’s common stock. The Operating Partnership is obligated to redeem each of these limited partnership Units in the Operating Partnership at the request of the holder thereof for cash equal to the fair market value of a share of the Parent Company’s common stock based on a 10-day average of the daily market price, at the time of such redemption, provided that the Company, at its option, may elect to acquire any such Unit presented for redemption for one common share or cash. The Company accounts for these noncontrolling redeemable Operating Partnership Units under the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 480-10-S99. The application of the ASC Topic 480-10-S99 accounting model requires the noncontrolling interest to follow normal noncontrolling interest accounting and then be marked to redemption value at the end of each reporting period if higher (but never adjusted below that normal noncontrolling interest accounting amount). The offset to the adjustment to the carrying amount of the noncontrolling interests is reflected in the Parent Company’s dividends in excess of net income and in the Operating Partnership’s general partner and limited partners capital balances. Accordingly, in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets, noncontrolling interests are reflected at redemption value at December 31, 2018 and 2017, equal to the number of noncontrolling interest units outstanding multiplied by the fair market value of the Parent Company’s common stock at that date. Redemption value exceeded the value determined under the Company’s historical basis of accounting at those dates.

The following is a reconciliation of the Parent Company’s noncontrolling redeemable Operating Partnership Units and the Operating Partnership’s limited partners’ redeemable capital interest for the year ending December 31:

 

(Dollars in thousands)

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Beginning balance

 

$

19,373

 

 

$

18,091

 

Redemption of units

 

 

(344

)

 

 

 

Issuance of units

 

 

3,547

 

 

 

 

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in

   Operating Partnership

 

 

968

 

 

 

444

 

Distributions

 

 

(865

)

 

 

(859

)

Adjustment to redemption value

 

 

1,037

 

 

 

1,697

 

Ending balance

 

$

23,716

 

 

$

19,373

 

 

In 2018, the Operating Partnership issued 35,457 Units with a fair value of $3.5 million as part of the consideration paid to acquire a self-storage property. The fair value of the Units on the date of issuance was determined based upon the fair market value of the Company’s common stock on that date.

In 2018, 3,972 Operating Partnership Units were redeemed for cash.

Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash

Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash : The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Restricted cash is included in other assets in the consolidated balance sheets and represents those amounts required to be placed in escrow by banks with whom the Company has entered into mortgages and cash placed in escrow related to amounts received upon disposal of real estate, restricted for use on future acquisitions of real estate.

The following table provides a reconciliation of cash and restricted cash reported within the consolidated statement of cash flows:

 

(Dollars in thousands)

 

December 31,

2018

 

 

December 31,

2017

 

 

December 31,

2016

 

Cash

 

$

13,560

 

 

$

9,167

 

 

$

23,685

 

Restricted cash

 

 

505

 

 

 

292

 

 

 

238

 

Total cash and restricted cash

 

$

14,065

 

 

$

9,459

 

 

$

23,923

 

 

Accounts Receivable

Accounts Receivable : Accounts receivable are composed of trade and other receivables recorded at billed amounts and do not bear interest. The allowance for doubtful accounts is the Company’s best estimate of the amount of probable uncollectible amounts in the Company’s existing accounts receivable. The Company determines the allowance based on a number of factors, including experience, credit worthiness of customers, and current market and economic conditions. The Company reviews the allowance for doubtful accounts on a regular basis. Account balances are charged against the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. The allowance for doubtful accounts is recorded as a reduction of accounts receivable and amounted to $0.5 million and $0.7 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

Revenue and Expense Recognition

Revenue and Expense Recognition : Rental income is recognized when earned pursuant to month-to-month leases for storage space. Promotional discounts are recognized as a reduction to rental income over the promotional period, which is generally during the first month of occupancy. Rental income received prior to the start of the rental period is included in deferred revenue. Equity in earnings of real estate joint ventures that we have significant influence over is recognized based on our ownership interest in the earnings of these entities.

The disaggregated revenues of the Company presented in accordance with ASC Topic 606 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” are as follows:

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Rental income

 

$

502,474

 

 

$

485,303

 

 

$

428,121

 

Management and acquisition fee income

 

 

10,571

 

 

 

9,867

 

 

 

6,095

 

Revenues related to tenant insurance

 

 

23,057

 

 

 

22,597

 

 

 

18,666

 

Other

 

 

14,748

 

 

 

11,983

 

 

 

9,726

 

Total operating revenues

 

$

550,850

 

 

$

529,750

 

 

$

462,608

 

Cost of operations, general and administrative expense, interest expense and advertising costs are expensed as incurred. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, advertising costs were $11.3 million, $12.3 million, and $9.5 million, respectively. The Company accrues property taxes based on actual invoices, estimates and historical trends. If these estimates are incorrect, the timing and amount of expense recognition would be affected.

Other Operating Income

Other Operating Income : Other operating income consists primarily of sales of storage-related merchandise (locks and packing supplies), revenues related to tenant insurance, incidental truck rentals, and management and acquisition fees from unconsolidated joint ventures.

Investment in Storage Facilities

Investment in Storage Facilities : Storage facilities are recorded at cost. The purchase price of acquired facilities is allocated to land, land improvements, building, equipment, and in-place customer leases based on the relative fair value of each component or based on the fair value of each component if accounted for as a business combination. The fair values of land are determined based upon comparable market sales information. The fair values of buildings are determined based upon estimates of current replacement costs adjusted for depreciation on the properties. For the year ended December 31, 2016, $29.5 million of acquisition related costs were incurred and expensed. There were no acquisition related costs expensed in 2018 or 2017.

Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over estimated useful lives of forty years for buildings and improvements, and five to twenty years for furniture, fixtures and equipment. Estimated useful lives are reevaluated when facts and circumstances indicate that the economic lives of assets do not extend to their currently assigned useful lives. Expenditures for significant renovations or improvements that extend the useful life of assets are capitalized. Depreciation expense was $102.3 million, $102.7 million and $87.2 million for the years ending December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively. Interest and other costs incurred during the construction period of major expansions, and on investments in joint ventures with properties under construction, are capitalized. Capitalized interest during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016 was $0.6 million, $0.3 million and $0.1 million, respectively. Repair and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred.

Whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the Company’s property may not be recoverable, the Company’s policy is to complete an assessment of impairment. Impairment is evaluated based upon comparing the sum of the property’s expected undiscounted future cash flows to the carrying value of the property. If the sum of the undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the property, an impairment loss is recognized for any amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, no assets have been determined to be impaired under this policy.

In general, sales of real estate and related profits / losses are recognized when control of the underlying assets has transferred.

Trade Name

Trade Name : The Company’s trade name, which was acquired in 2016, has an indefinite life and is not amortized but is reviewed for impairment annually or more frequently when facts and circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the Company’s trade name may not be recoverable. We may elect to perform a qualitative assessment that considers economic, industry and company-specific factors as part of our annual test. If, after completing this assessment, it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the trade name is less than its carrying value, we proceed to a quantitative test. We did not elect to perform a qualitative assessment in 2018.

Quantitative testing requires a comparison of the fair value of the trade name to its carrying value. We use a discounted cash flow analysis under the relief-from-royalty method to estimate the fair value of the trade name. This method incorporates various assumptions, including projected revenue growth rates, the terminal growth rate, the royalty rate to be applied, and the discount rate utilized. If the carrying value of the trade name exceeds the calculated fair value, the trade name is considered impaired to the extent that the carrying value exceeds the fair value. We did not record any impairment in 2018, 2017, or 2016.

Other Assets

Other Assets : Included in other assets are cash balances held in escrow for encumbered properties, property deposits and the value placed on in-place customer leases at the time of acquisition. Property deposits at December 31, 2018 and 2017 were $1.1 million and $0.9 million, respectively. In 2016, a decision was made to not proceed with the acquisition of two properties on which the Company had previously made property deposits totaling $1.8 million. As a result, these property deposits were abandoned and are included in write-off of acquired property deposits on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. No such expenses were incurred in 2018 or 2017.

The Company allocates a portion of the purchase price of acquisitions to in-place customer leases. The methodology used to determine the fair value of in-place customer leases is described in Note 8. The Company amortizes in-place customer leases on a straight-line basis over 12 months (the estimated future benefit period).

Investment in Unconsolidated Joint Ventures

Investment in Unconsolidated Joint Ventures : The Company’s investment in unconsolidated joint ventures where the Company has significant influence but not control, and joint ventures which are variable interest entities in which the Company is not the primary beneficiary, are recorded under the equity method of accounting in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. Under the equity method, the Company’s investment in unconsolidated joint ventures is stated at cost and adjusted for the Company’s share of net earnings or losses and reduced by distributions. Equity in earnings of unconsolidated joint ventures is generally recognized based on the Company’s ownership interest in the earnings of each of the unconsolidated joint ventures. For the purposes of presentation in the statement of cash flows, the Company follows the “look through” approach for classification of distributions from joint ventures. Under this approach, distributions are reported under operating cash flow unless the facts and circumstances of a specific distribution clearly indicate that it is a return of capital (e.g., a liquidating dividend or distribution of the proceeds from the joint venture’s sale of assets), in which case it is reported as an investing activity.

Accounts Payable and Accrued Liabilities

Accounts Payable and Accrued Liabilities : Accounts payable and accrued liabilities consists primarily of trade payables, accrued interest, and property tax accruals.

Income Taxes

Income Taxes : The Company qualifies as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and will generally not be subject to corporate income taxes to the extent it distributes its taxable income to its shareholders and complies with certain other requirements.

The Company has elected to treat three of its subsidiaries as taxable REIT subsidiaries. In general, the Company’s taxable REIT subsidiaries may perform additional services for tenants and generally may engage in certain real estate or non-real estate related business. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to corporate federal and state income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities.

The Company recorded federal and state income tax expense of $3.1 million in 2018, federal and state income tax benefit of $1.0 million in 2017, and federal and state income tax expense of $0.4 million in 2016, which are included in general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations. The 2018 income tax expense includes current tax expense of $1.7 million and deferred tax expense of $1.4 million. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, there were no material unrecognized tax benefits. Interest and penalties relating to uncertain tax positions will be recognized in income tax expense when incurred. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company had no interest or penalties related to uncertain tax provisions. Income taxes payable at December 31, 2018 and 2017 are classified within accounts payable and accrued liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets. Prepaid income taxes at December 31, 2018 and 2017 are classified within prepaid expenses, while the net deferred tax assets of our taxable REIT subsidiaries at December 31, 2018 and 2017 are classified within other assets in the consolidated balance sheets. As of December 31, 2018, the Company’s taxable REIT subsidiaries have prepaid taxes of $0.1 million, deferred tax assets of $2.1 million and a deferred tax liability of $1.6 million. As of December 31, 2017, the Company’s taxable REIT subsidiaries have prepaid taxes of $0.1 million, deferred tax assets of $3.6 million and a deferred tax liability of $1.7 million.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJA”) was enacted in December 2017. The TCJA significantly changed the U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to businesses and their owners, including REITs and their shareholders. Under the TCJA, the corporate income tax rate is reduced from a maximum rate of 35% to a flat 21% rate. The reduced corporate income tax rate, which is effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, applies to income earned by our taxable REIT subsidiaries.

Derivative Financial Instruments

Derivative Financial Instruments : The Company accounts for derivatives in accordance with ASC Topic 815 “ Derivatives and Hedging”, which requires companies to carry all derivatives on the balance sheet at fair value. The Company determines the fair value of derivatives using an income approach. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative instrument depends on whether it has been designated and qualifies as part of a hedging relationship and, if so, the reason for holding it. The Company’s use of derivative instruments has been limited to cash flow hedges of certain interest rate risks.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Recent Accounting Pronouncements : In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in “Revenue Recognition (Topic 605),” and requires an entity to recognize revenue in a way that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017 and is therefore effective for the Company as of January 1, 2018. The Company elected to adopt the standard using the modified retrospective transition method. Leases are specifically excluded from the scope of ASU 2014-09, therefore, upon analysis, the Company concluded that the adoption of the new standard did not have any impact on the timing or amounts of the Company’s rental revenue from customers which represents over 90% of the Company’s total operating revenues. We have evaluated the other revenue streams material to the Company and have concluded that the adoption of the new standard did not have any material impact on the timing or amounts of the Company’s material revenue streams and no cumulative effect adjustment is required as of the date of initial application. Payment from such revenue streams is due and generally collected upon invoice. Also, as part of the Company’s adoption of ASU 2014-09, the Company has elected to apply the transition guidance only to contracts that were not completed contracts at the date of initial application. Further, related to the Company’s management fee revenue stream which relates to managing self-storage facilities for third-parties and unconsolidated joint ventures, the Company has elected to apply a practical expedient provided in the new standard which allows the Company to recognize revenue in the amount of management fees to which the Company has a right to invoice as that amount corresponds directly with the value to the customer of the entity’s performance completed to date. With respect to the Company’s revenues related to tenant insurance, the Company recognizes revenue based upon the amount that the Company has the right to invoice following the practical expedient in ASC 606-10-55-18 as such amount corresponds directly with the value to the third-party insurer of the entity’s performance completed to date.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)” (ASC 842). This guidance revises existing practice related to accounting for leases under Accounting Standards Codification Topic 840 Leases (ASC 840) for both lessees and lessors. The new guidance in ASU 2016-02 requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for virtually all of their leases (other than leases that meet the definition of a short-term lease). The lease liability will be equal to the present value of lease payments and the right-of-use asset will be based on the lease liability, subject to adjustments such as for initial direct costs and prepaid or accrued lease payments. For income statement purposes, the new standard retains a dual model similar to ASC 840, requiring leases to be classified as either operating or finance. For lessees, operating leases will result in straight-line expense (similar to current accounting by lessees for operating leases under ASC 840) while finance leases will result in a front-loaded expense pattern (similar to current accounting by lessees for capital leases under ASC 840). While the new standard maintains similar accounting for lessors as under ASC 840, the new standard reflects updates to, among other things, align with certain changes to the lessee model. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years and interim periods, within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018 and is therefore effective for the Company as of January 1, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for all entities, though the Company did not adopt ASU 2016-02 early. Management has determined that the application of ASC 842 did not have a significant impact on the Company’s currently existing leases where the Company is a lessor. The Company has inventoried all leases where the Company is a lessee as of the initial date of application and has examined certain other contracts to identify whether such contracts contain a lease as defined under the new guidance. The Company’s lease population comprises lease for land and/or buildings in which certain of the Company’s self-storage facilities operate, as well as leases of corporate office space. All leases where the Company is the lessee qualify as operating leases and the Company does not have any financing leases as of the date of adoption of ASU 2016-02. The aggregate right-of-use asset and related lease liability at the initial date of application related to all leases identified by the Company where the Company is a lessee total approximately $16 million. Two of the leases for real estate at which the Company operates self-storage facilities include unilateral options for the Company to extend the terms of these leases. However, those extension periods are not included in the terms of the respective leases under ASC 842 due to the Company’s inability to assert that it is reasonably certain to exercise those options based primarily on the length of time before such options would be exercised. One of the Company’s leases of a self-storage facility also provides the Company with the option to purchase the property under lease for $13.3 million. Future lease payments which are based on changes to the consumer price index and future common area maintenance charges related to corporate office space leases have been excluded from the future minimum noncancelable lease payments for the respective leases due to their variable nature. The Company has made the following accounting policy elections and practical expedient elections provided for in ASC 842:

 

The package of practical expedients in ASC 842-10-65-1(f) which, if elected, stipulates that for all leases existing at the date of application (1) an entity need not reassess whether any expired or existing contracts contain leases; (2) an entity need not reassess the lease classification for any expired or existing leases; and (3) an entity need not reassess initial direct costs for any existing leases.

 

The practical expedient in ASC 842-10-65-1(g) which, if elected, stipulates that an entity may use hindsight at the date of initial application in determining the lease term and in assessing impairment of the entity’s right to use assets.

 

The practical expedient in ASC 842-10-65-1(gg) which, if elected, stipulates that an entity need not assess whether existing or expired land easements that were not previously accounted for as leases under ASC 840 are or contain a lease under ASC 842.

 

The practical expedient in ASC 842-10-15-37 which, if elected, allows a lessee to choose not to separate nonlease components from lease components and instead account for each separate lease component and the nonlease components associated with that lease component as a single lease component.

 

The practical expedient in ASC 842-10-15-42A which, if elected, allows a lessor to choose not to separate nonlease components from lease components and, instead, to account for each separate lease component and the nonlease components associated with that lease component as a single lease component if the nonlease components otherwise would be accounted for under ASC 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, and both (1) the timing and pattern of transfer for the lease component and nonlease component(s) associated with the lease component are the same, and (2) the lease component, if accounted for separately, would be classified as an operating lease in accordance with ASC 842-10-25 paragraphs 2 and 3.

 

The option in ASC 842-20-25-2 for a lessee to elect, as an accounting policy, not to apply the recognition requirements in ASC 842 to short-term leases and, instead, to recognize the lease payments in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term and variable lease payments in the period in which the obligation for those payments is incurred. Leases are considered short-term when they have a term of less than one year.

 

The Company has elected to define the term “major part,” as referenced in ASC 842-10-25-2 related to the remaining economic life of an asset, as being 75% or more of the remaining economic life of the asset.

 

The Company has elected to define the term “substantially all,” as referenced in ASC 842-10-25-2 related to the fair value of an asset, as being 90% or more of the fair value of the underlying asset.

 

The Company has elected to define the term “at or near the end,” as referenced in ASC 842-10-25-2 related to a lease commencement date, as being a date that falls within the last 25% of the total economic life of the underlying asset.

In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (a Consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force)” in an effort to reduce existing diversity in practice related to the classification of certain cash receipts and cash payments on the statements of cash flows. The guidance addresses the classification of cash flows related to, among other things, distributions received from equity method investees. The amendments in this update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those annual periods. The Company has elected to use the nature of the distribution approach to classify distributions received from its equity method investees. This approach requires distributions to be classified in the statement of cash flows on the basis of the nature of the activity or activities of the investee that generated the distribution as either a return on investment (classified as a cash inflow from operating activities) or a return of investment (classified as a cash inflow from investing activities). The implementation of this update as of January 1, 2018 did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (a Consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force)” which requires restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents to be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The amendments in this update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption of this update is permitted. Other than modifications to the statement of cash flows and the additional information disclosed earlier in note 2, the adoption of ASU 2016-18 on January 1, 2018 did not have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The consolidated statements of cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 have been modified to conform to the presentation requirements of ASU 2016-18 which entail including restricted cash along with cash in the beginning balance, ending balance and net change in cash and restricted cash on the consolidated statement of cash flows.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, “Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business” which is intended to assist entities with evaluating whether a set of transferred assets and activities is a business. The amendments in this update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption of this update is permitted and the Company adopted this update effective January 1, 2017. The adoption of ASU 2017-01 has potential impact on the accounting treatment of properties acquired subsequent to the date of adoption. Property acquisitions treated as business combinations under previous guidance may no longer be treated as business combinations subsequent to the adoption of ASU 2017-01. To the extent that properties that we acquire do not meet the definition of a “business” under ASU 2017-01, future acquisitions of properties may be accounted for as asset acquisitions resulting in the capitalization of acquisition costs incurred in connection with these transactions and the allocation of the purchase price and related acquisition costs to the assets acquired based on their relative fair values. There were no properties acquired in 2017 that would have been accounted for as business combinations prior to the adoption of ASU 2017-01 and the eight properties acquired during 2018 would likely have been accounted for as business combinations prior to the adoption of ASU 2017-01.

In February 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-05, “Other Income – Gains and Losses from the Derecognition of Nonfinancial Assets (Subtopic 610-20): Clarifying the Scope of Asset Derecognition Guidance and Accounting for Partial Sales of Nonfinancial Assets” which clarifies the scope and application of ASC 610-20 on the sale or transfer of nonfinancial assets, including real estate, and in substance nonfinancial assets to noncustomers, including partial sales. The amendments in this update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those annual periods. The implementation of this update as of January 1, 2018 could potentially impact the accounting treatment of future real estate sales of the Company if such sales are to parties who are also customers of the Company, though the implementation did not have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018.

In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, “Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting” which provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. The amendments in this update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those annual periods. The implementation of this update as of January 1, 2018 did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements, however, all future changes to the terms or conditions of any of the Company’s share-based payment awards are subject to the guidance in ASU 2017-09 and could potentially be accounted for differently than under the previous guidance concerning such changes.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other – Internal Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract” which provides guidance to assist entities in accounting for implementation, setup, and other upfront costs (collectively referred to as implementation costs) incurred by entities that are a customer in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract. The amendments in this update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those annual periods. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2018-15 on its consolidated financial statements.

Stock-Based Compensation

Stock-Based Compensation : The Company accounts for stock-based compensation under the provisions of ASC Topic 718, “Compensation - Stock Compensation”. The Company recognizes compensation cost in its financial statements for all share based payments granted, modified, or settled during the period. For awards with graded vesting, compensation cost is recognized on a straight-line basis over the related vesting period.

The Company recorded compensation expense (included in general and administrative expense) of $7,000, $15,000, and $89,000, respectively, related to stock options and $6.0 million, $7.1 million, and $7.2 million, respectively, related to amortization of non-vested stock grants for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016. The Company uses the Black-Scholes Merton option pricing model to estimate the fair value of stock options granted subsequent to the adoption of ASC Topic 718. The application of this pricing model involves assumptions that are judgmental and sensitive in the determination of compensation expense. There were no options granted during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016.

In September 2018, the Company announced that current Chief Executive Officer, David Rogers, would be retiring effective March 1, 2019. In conjunction with this announcement, the vesting periods of certain restricted stock awards and performance-based awards previously granted to Mr. Rogers were accelerated to reflect his March 1, 2019 retirement date. As a result of this change, an additional $0.9 million of compensation expense was recorded in 2018 and $0.4 million of additional compensation expense is expected to be recorded during the three months ended March 31, 2019.

To determine expected volatility, the Company uses historical volatility based on daily closing prices of its Common Stock over periods that correlate with the expected terms of the options granted. The risk-free rate is based on the United States Treasury yield curve at the time of grant for the expected life of the options granted. Expected dividends are based on the Company’s history and expectation of dividend payouts. The expected life of stock options is based on the midpoint between the vesting date and the end of the contractual term. The Company recognizes any forfeitures as they occur.

During 2018, 2017, and 2016, the Company issued performance based non-vested stock awards to certain executives. The fair values for the performance based awards in 2018, 2017 and 2016 were estimated at the time the awards were granted using a Monte Carlo pricing model applying the following weighted-average assumptions:

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Expected life (years)

 

 

3.0

 

 

 

3.0

 

 

 

3.0

 

Risk free interest rate

 

 

2.62

%

 

 

1.79

%

 

 

1.53

%

Expected volatility

 

 

21.36

%

 

 

19.92

%

 

 

19.37

%

Fair value

 

$

93.26

 

 

$

82.06

 

 

$

80.24

 

The Monte Carlo pricing model was not used to value any other 2018, 2017, and 2016 non-vested shares granted as no market conditions were present in these awards. The value of these other non-vested shares was equal to the stock price on the date of grant.

Use of Estimates

Use of Estimates : The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Reclassification

Reclassifications : Certain amounts previously reported in the consolidated financial statements have been reclassified in the accompanying consolidated financial statements to conform to the current period’s presentation, primarily to change the presentation of Gain (loss) on sale of storage facilities and Gain on sale of real estate on the consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. The Company has included Gain (loss) on sale of storage facilities and Gain on sale of real estate as a component of Income from operations to present gains and losses on sales of properties in accordance with ASC 360-10-45-5. The change was made for the prior periods as the Securities and Exchange Commission has eliminated Rule 3-15(a)(1) of Regulation S-X as part of Release No. 33-10532; 34-83875; IC-33203, which had required REITs to present gains and losses on sales of properties outside of continuing operations in the income statement.